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Tuesday 26 September 2017

Lesson No. 4 - Web Browsers, Email, Messengers

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Lesson No. 4 PART 1 PPT 
Lesson No. 4 PART 2 PPT 

Lesson No. 4 Web Browsers, E-mail Clients and Messenger Utilities           XI Comm. and Science
I Fill in the blanks:

1.      HTTP stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol.
2.      WWW stands for World Wide Web.
3.      Bcc section of email indicates that the receivers of the email are unable to see the list of other addresses to whom the email has been sent.
4.      Incoming emails are saved in Inbox in MS Outlook.
5.      Draft folder is used to save any email message that you create but do not send in MS Outlook.
6.      In Shell connection type, internet user will get only textual matter of a web page.
7.      URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator.
8.      DNS stands for Domain Naming System.
9.      Generic top-level domain (gTLD) for non-profit organization is usually  .org
10.  POP stands for Post Office Protocol
11.  Software used to manage your emails : Eudora and Microsoft Outlook.
12.  Option provided while composing email :    To,   Subject,  Cc,  Bcc,
13.  Popular Web browsers:  Mozilla Firefox,  Google Chrome, Internet Explorer
14.  Protocols used while sending and receiving emails:  SMTP,   POP

II  Define:
1) Internet: Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks using a common protocol (TCP/IP) through telephone wires, fibre optic cables, wireless technologies, satellite links, etc.
2) Web Browser: Web Browser or Internet browser is the program that is used to access internet and view web pages on the computer. It is used to locate, retrieve and display content of the World Wide Web, including Web pages, images, video and other files.
3) Web Server: A Web server is a computer system on Internet that uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to serve the Web pages to users, in response to their requests, which are forwarded by their computer's browser. It is a computer where the web content is stored. Basically, web server is used to host the web sites but there exists other web servers also such as gaming, storage, FTP, email etc.
4) Email: Electronic mail is the term given to electronic message, usually a form of simple text message that a user types in a computer system and is transmitted over network to another user. You can also attach files to an email.
5) WWW:  World Wide Web  is a an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet. It is a system of Internet servers that supports documents formatted in mark-up language called HTML that supports links to other documents as well as graphics, audio and video files.

III Write short note on:
1) IP Address: An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, smart phone, other devices) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. It is used to identify itself and communicate with other devices in the IP network. Any device connected to the IP network must have an unique IP address within the network. 
There are two standards for IP addresses: IP Version 4 (IPv4) and IP Version 6 (IPv6).
    IPv4 uses 32 binary bits to create a single unique address on the network. An IPv4 address is expressed by four numbers separated by dots. Each number is the decimal (base-10) representation for an eight-digit binary (base-2) number, also called an octet. For example:,
    IPv6 uses 128 binary, bits to create a single unique address on the network. An IPv6 address is expressed by eight groups of hexadecimal (base-16) numbers separated by colons, as in 2001:cdba:0000:0000:0000:0000:3257:9652. Groups of numbers that contain all zeros are often omitted to save space, leaving a colon separator to mark the gap (as in 2001:cdba::3257:9652).

2) Domain Naming System:  DNS is a hierarchical, distributed method of organizing the name space on Internet. The DNS is a worldwide system of servers that stores location pointers to Web sites. It translates Internet domain and host names to IP addresses and vice versa.
DNS implements a distributed database to store domain names and their web server's IP addresses on the Internet. The DNS database resides on a hierarchy of special database servers.

Whether you're accessing a Web site or sending e-mail, your computer uses a DNS server to look up the domain name you're trying to access. The proper term for this process is DNS name resolution, and you would say that the DNS server resolves the domain name to the IP address.
For example, when you enter "" in your browser, part of the network connection includes resolving the domain name "" into an IP address, like, for HowStuffWorks' Web servers.

3) Messenger: Messenger is  an app used for instant messaging to individuals or groups. It allows to share photos, videos, audio recordings and other files. Example: Yahoo Messenger, MSN messenger, Facebook messenger, AOL, gtalk, etc.

4) FTP: The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer computer files between a client and server on a computer network. It can also be used to send configuration files and software updates for network switches and routers. FTP uses ports for communications and also uses encryption to protect the information being received and sent.

6) Gateway Access:  Gateway Access is also known as Level-One connection. The gateway allows two different types of networks to communicate with each other. A network gateway can be implemented completely in software, completely in hardware, or as a combination of both. Depending on the types of protocols they support, network gateways can operate at any level of the OSI model. For example within India, all access to Internet from India are through BSNL gateway.

7) Dial-up Connection: Dialup connection is also known as Level Two connection. It provides connection through a dial-up terminal connection.
It is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a connection to an Internet service provider (ISP) by dialing a telephone number on a conventional telephone line. The user's computer uses an attached modem to encode and decode information into and from audio frequency signals, respectively.
When connecting, the modem will pick up the phone and dial a number that is attached to Internet Service Provider's computer(host). After the connection has been made the computer can check e-mail, browse the Internet, and share files.
It allows users to surf the Web at 56 Kbps speed. The types of dial-up connection are:
a) Shell Connection                 b)  TCP/IP Connection             c) ISDN connection

IV Answer the following:
1) Explain the fields available while composing an Email. Answer on Page No. 108 / 104(Science Textbook)
2)  Explain the different Email Protocols.   Answer on Page No. 109  / 105(Science Textbook)
3)  Give the applications(uses) of Internet.   Answer on Page No. 101  /  98(Science Textbook)

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