Thursday, 17 August 2017

Lesson No.1 Introduction to IT - Part 2


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Hardware
       It refers to the physical components that make up a computer system.
       There are many different kinds of hardware that can be installed inside, and connected to the outside, of a computer.
       In information technology, hardware is the physical aspect of computers, telecommunications, and other devices.
       Hardware includes not only the computer but also the cables, connectors, power supply units, and peripheral devices such as the keyboard, mouse, audio speakers, and printers.



BLOCK DIAGRAM OF COMPUTER
       A computer is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of operations can be changed allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem.
       Basic Structure: The basic components of a computer are:
Ø  Input Unit
Ø  Output Unit
Ø  Memory /Storage Unit
Ø  Arithmetic Logic Unit
Ø  Control Unit
Ø  Central Processing Unit

Input Unit
The Following Functions are performed by an Input unit:
       It accepts the instruction and data from the outside world.
       It converts these instructions and data in computer acceptable form.
       It supplies the converted instructions and data to the computer system for further processing.
       Examples: Keyboard, Image scanner,  Microphone, Pointing devices   (Graphics tablet , Joystick, Light pen,  Mouse, Touchpad, Touch screen  Trackball), Webcam

Output Unit
The Following Functions are performed by an Output unit:
       It accepts the result produced by the computer which is in coded form, So, can't be understand by us.
       It converts these code results to human acceptable i.e. readable form
       It supplies the converted result to outside world.
       Examples: Monitor, Printer, Speakers, Plotters, Projector

CPU
       Central Processing Unit: The main unit inside the computer is the CPU. This unit is responsible for all events inside the computer.
       Also called Microprocessor or just Processor
       It controls all internal and external devices, performs arithmetic and logic operations.
       CPU is the brain of the system.

Inside CPU
The processor logically consists of the following units:
       A)  Control Unit  (CU)
       B)  Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
       C)  Registers

Control Unit
       The control unit maintains order within the computer system and directs the flow of traffic (operations) and data.
       The flow of control is indicated by the dotted arrows.
       The control unit selects one program statement at a time from the program storage area, interprets the statement, and sends the appropriate electronic signals to the arithmetic-logic unit and storage section to cause them to carry out the instruction.
ALU
       The arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) performs all arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) and logic operations.
       Logic operations tests various conditions encountered during processing and allows for different actions to be taken based on the results.
       The data required to perform the arithmetic and logical functions are inputs from the designated CPU registers and operands.
       The ALU relies on basic items to perform its operations.
       These include number systems, data routing circuits (adders/subtracter), timing, instructions, operands, and registers.
Registers
       CPU Registers are a group of circuits used for memory addressing, data operation and processing.
       Examples – Accumulator register, Program Counter register, Instruction register




Computer in Hiding
       In our day to day life we experience many things carried in automated ways but these are operations carried by computers behind the scene.
       For example when we debit or credit from ATM machine, behind the scene there are many computers, applications and concept like networking which plays major role.
Large Computers
       Large Computers indicates here the mega systems which perform the tasks at backend like reservation systems, internet etc.
       Thus many of our daily activities, such as making reservations. Watching weather forecast, or withdrawing money from ATM machine are actually interactions with computer system that you don’t see.
Small Computers
       Small Computers: indicates small automated machines or networks which work at back end and facilitates the end user.
       Here microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines appliances. power tools, toys and other embedded systems.

Embedded Computers
       Embedded computers can be compared to "computers on a chip".
       It may be clear that these devices are mostly used for controlling.
       A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (IC) that integrates all components of a computer system into a single chip.
       It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions-all on a small  computer on a single chip substrate.

Microcontroller
       A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals.
       Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal  computers other general purpose applications



Applications of IT
I.T in business: Most business activities involve transactions with suppliers, employees, or customers These transactions are possible using information processing system.
Using desktop publishing programs, or even sophisticated word processing programs, people can create sales letters, brochures, price lists, newsletters, and even hook-length manuals.
 IT has made it possible for business to be open 24 x7 all over the globe. This means that a business can be open anytime anywhere, making purchases from different countries easier and more convenient.

I.T in industry: Information technology has major impact in industries where products are designed and manufactured Computer aided design (CAD) is used to design the products and computer aided manufacturing is used to produce them
Product design: Computer-Aided Design programs reduced the need of draftsmen significantly especially in small to mid-sized companies.
CAD is used in the design of tools and machinery and in the drafting and design of all types of buildings, from small residential types (houses) to the largest commercial and industrial structures (hospitals and factories).
CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design.

Product manufacturing Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of computer software to control machine tools and related machinery in the manufacturing of work pieces.
 CAM may also refer to the use of a computer to assist in all operations of a manufacturing plant, including planning management, transportation and storage.

I.T at home and play: From the comfort of your home you can research school or work assignments, exchange e-mail, join special interest groups, download files, play games, or make railway and airline reservations from any computer with an internet connection.
You can read the newspaper, shop online, or read reviews of the movie. Home shopping and banking are growing areas of computing

I.T in education and training: Information Technology plays a key role in the modern systems of education.
Students find it easier to refer to the Internet than searching for information in books. The process of learning has gone beyond learning from prescribed textbooks.
Online education has revolutionized the education industry The Information technology has made dream of distance learning, a reality.

Education is no more limited to classrooms. It has reached far and wide thanks to the computer technology physically distant locations have come close to each other only due to computer networking.
Information technology facilitates an efficient storage and effective presentation of information Presentation software like PowerPoint and animation software like Flash and others can be of great help to the teachers while delivering information. 

Computers can turn out being a brilliant aid in teaching. Computers facilitate an audio-visual representation of information, thus making the process of learning interactive and interesting. Computer-aided teaching adds a fun element to education
Internet can play an important role in education. As it is an enormous information base, it can be used for the retrieval of information on a wide variety of subjects. The Internet can be used to refer to information on various subjects to be taught to the students. CBT:-Computer-Based Training, a type of education in which the student learns by executing special training programs on a computer.

I.T in science and engineering: Information technology plays a major role today in every field of scientific research from genetic engineering to astrophysics research. One of the prime uses of information technology in pure science and engineering projects is the running of simulations. Physicians use information technology to understand the human body and to diagnose disorders

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