Thursday, 10 August 2017

Lesson No.1 Introduction to IT - Part 1

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FYJC - Ls. No. 1 Introduction to IT

What is Information Technology?
•       It refers to the creation, gathering, processing, storage and delivery of information.
Information Technology can:
•       process raw data into useful information
•       recycle processed information and use it as data in another processing step.
•       pack information in a new form

System
•       A group of interdependent items that interact regularly to perform a task.
•       E.g. Solar System, Digestive system, Computer System

Information Systems
•       It can be viewed as a work system where all activities are devoted to different types of digital processing.
•       The main components of a typical information system are computers, stored facts, instructions and procedures.

What is Data?
•       Data are any facts, numbers  or text than can be processed by a computer.
•       Data in Computers
•       Data in computers is represented in the form of electric pulses.
•       using binary number system which consists of only two digits 0 and 1
•       Data is represented in strings of 0 and 1

Data Representation
·         A computer circuit represents the 0 or the 1 electronically by the presence or absence of an electrical charge
·         Eight bits grouped together as a unit are called a byte. A byte represents a single character in the computer
•       ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) was the most widely used coding scheme to represent data.
•       Today, UNICODE is used in Computers and Internet , which can represent worlds all languages.

Data types in Common programming languages
•       Integer : It is a whole number, a number that has no fractional part.  E.g  8, 0, -5
•       Boolean: It is logical data type, having two values (true or false)
•       Char:  to store readable text (characters)
•       Float: to store floating point numbers i.e. numbers with fractional part E.g. 3.2584


Units of Storage/Memory in Computer
Memory unit is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit. This storage capacity is expressed in terms of Bytes.
The following table explains the main memory storage units −
S.No.
Unit & Description
1
Bit (Binary Digit)
A binary digit is logical 0 and 1 representing a passive or an active state of a component in an electric circuit.
2
Nibble   
A group of 4 bits is called nibble.
3
Byte
A group of 8 bits is called byte. A byte is the smallest unit, which can represent a data item or a character.
4
Word
A computer word, like a byte, is a group of fixed number of bits processed as a unit, which varies from computer to computer but is fixed for each computer.
The length of a computer word is called word-size or word length. It may be as small as 8 bits or may be as long as 96 bits. A computer stores the information in the form of computer words.

Unit & Description
Nibble              1 Nibble = 4 bits
Byte (B)            1 Byte = 8 bits
Kilobyte (KB)       1 KB = 1024 Bytes
Megabyte (MB)     1 MB = 1024 KB
GigaByte (GB)      1 GB = 1024 MB
TeraByte (TB)      1 TB = 1024 GB
PetaByte (PB)      1 PB = 1024 TB
ExaByte (EB)       1 EB = 1024 PB
ZettaByte (ZB)      1 ZB = 1024 EB
YottaByte (YB)      1 YB = 1024 ZB

Information
•       Information is processed data which carries important meaning for any reference.
Data vs Information
Data
•       Raw facts of things
•       No contextual meaning
•       Just numbers and text
Information
•       It is processed data which is meaningful
•       Data with exact meaning

What is Big Data?
•       Big Data is a collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing application.

Software
•       It is a collection of computer programs and related data that instructs a computer what to do and how to do it.
•       Software is a conceptual entity which is a set of computer programs, procedures, and associated documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system.
•       Software is a set of programs, procedures,  algorithms and its documentation.
•       Software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software.

Types of Software
System Software
•       It has direct control and access to your computer hardware, and memory locations.
•       It performs I/O operations on various memory locations and controls the hardware.
•       It helps other application software to utilize the hardware.

System Software consists of:
–      Operating System (OS)
–      Utility Programs

Operating System
–      program that is loaded into the computer and coordinates all the activities among computer hardware devices
–      controls the hardware in the computer , peripherals, manages memory and files
–      enables the user to communicate with the computer and other software
–      examples of operating system are Microsoft Windows, Macintosh OS X, Linux , Unix and also DOS

Utility Programs
–      allows user to perform maintenance-type tasks
–      It has been integrated into most major operating systems such as format, check and defragment disks
–      examples of utility programs are antivirus and file compression programs
–      Also known as service programs, is a type of system software that allow user to perform maintenance-type task, usually related to managing a computer

Types of utility programs:
–      Built in – windows explorer, disk cleanup, disk defragmenter
–      Stand-alone utility – winzip, norton utility, kaspersky

Application Software
•       Application Software runs under the System Software and used to do specific task for the users.
•       E.g. Word Processors, Accounting softwares, Spreadsheets, Database management softwares, Media player, Designing softwares, Web Browsers, Chatting programs, Games, etc..

Types of Application Software
•       Word Processing              MS Word, Write
•       Spreadsheet                  MS Excel, Calc
•       Presentation                  MS PowerPoint, Impress
•       DBMS                       MS Access, MYSQL, Oracle
•       Graphics Editing              Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw
•       Multimedia                    Vlc media player
•       Accounting                    Tally
•       Games


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